Theme: Innovative leadership in international education

DRAFT Fostering professional practice

SECTION 1

What, exactly, is professional practice? 

Professional practice is a concept applied in all industry sectors. It refers to the roles of professional people, the skills, knowledge and competencies specific to their responsibilities. 

In this topic, we suggest that professional practice is improved with thoughtful, purposeful engagement with colleagues, stakeholders and relevant agencies. This aligns with George Beaton’s view that professionals should focus on “the expertise, altruism and ethics that make them worthy of trust”., Professionalism is not only about what professionals do, but who they are. 

This section unpacks the components of professionalism and professional practice in international education across roles, in education and community-related settings. It looks at professional competence, professionalism, professional ethics, and what makes ‘practice’ professional.

A. Professional competence

Use the interactive competency matrix below. This sets out a selection of knowledge and skills within international education roles. Track and assess your own professional competencies and identify areas for improvement. 

International Education core competencies: Self-reflection matrix                                                          ISANA NZ

Present competency                   5 = Excellent     1 = Basic         

Relevance to work role              5 = Highly relevant  1 = Limited relevance           

Professional development          5 = Urgent PD need   1 = Low priority PD need                

Specialised Knowledge Present competency Relevance to work role PD training needs
Understanding the International Education field
Knowledge of regulatory and ethical frameworks in International Education
Understanding of the history, developments and objectives of International Education 
Knowledge of the impact of the cross-border experience on international student integration and learning
Knowledge of the present issues and challenges in International Education
Knowledge of good practice models in International Education

 

Specialised Skills Present competency Relevance to work role PD training needs
International Education skills
Ability to relate to a student cohort that is culturally and religiously diverse
Ability to communicate with students with low English proficiency 
Skills in listening, mediation, negotiation and problem solving in intercultural contexts
Self-management, resilience and self-care
Capacity to observe the student experience, critically reflect and adapt practice
Capacity to work with a team to addresses challenges and lead innovative initiatives

 

 

  • What professional development needs did you identify?
  • Are there competencies not listed in the matrix that you think are relevant to your work? 

 

B. Professionalism 

Consider what you understand by professionalism. Is there more than one definition?

Principles of professionalism apply to work in international education. Professionals have:

  • A body of theoretical and practical knowledge in the field
  • ‘Exclusive competence’: a body of knowledge and skills unique to the field
  • Development and transmission of the profession’s knowledge
  • A service ethic, such as a code of ethics
  • Moral and legal responsibility for practice of the profession
  • Self-improvement goals
  • A commitment to service and a contribution to the human good.

 

C. Professional ethics 

Ethics are often confused with: 

  • feelings
  • religious commitments
  • legislation (Acts, codes and regulations)
  • culturally accepted norms (such as a stance on bribery or gifts), and
  • allegiances to work colleagues/students/clients (Markkula Center for Applied Ethics 2006).

While these things are not synonymous with ethics, they do often influence our ethical choices.

As a professional, you are required to comply with policies and guidelines that are based on ethical behaviour, such as privacy, duty of care, commitment to student welfare. At the same time, policies and procedures don’t always cover the ethical dilemmas you may face.

For example: Imagine you have a rapport with an international student who you have been helping with his academic and personal difficulties. He tells you he has failed multiple units because he has not attended classes. He is unable to extend his visa to continue his course. You are aware of the Code requirement to report his situation to Immigration, but you also believe he will face extreme difficulty if he is reported. 

What ethical decision will you make in this case?

D. What makes ‘practice’ ‘professional?

As an international education professional, you will be aware that your organisation has processes and policy structures that guide the way you and your team work together. This includes your agreed hours of work, possibly a dress code, and how you should interact with your network of colleagues, students, stakeholders, families, and agents. 

Yet the ‘rules’ of professional practice are only one layer. When you foster professional practice, you make a commitment to performance standards that transcend minimum requirements. Aspects of these standards are: 

  • maintaining professional boundaries
  • understanding the significance of standards and benchmarks
  • meeting and exceeding organisational expectations.

In Section 2 we explore these aspects of fostering professional practice. 

 

SECTION 2

Why does fostering professional practice in international student affairs matter? What are the benefits for institutions, communities, and globally?

Fostering professional practice is a process with purpose. It helps your organisation to:

  • Deliver “an excellent overall international student experience” (NZIES, Goal 1)
  • Secure your institutional reputation
  • Enhance personal growth and workplace team building 
  • Ensure a resilient, adaptable institution 
  • Meet the organisation’s responsibility for developing human resources
  • Meet Code and other legal obligations
  • Mitigate institutional risk through application of specialised skills and knowledge 
  • Provide skilled student support and develop global citizens (mobile, capable and curious international students) 
  • Gain the trust of your clients.

In Section 1, we said that professionals should aim to meet standards in their performance. This section looks at how these standards increase effectiveness, especially in relation to international student services and support. It covers professional boundaries, client service standards and benchmarks.

A. Maintaining professional boundaries

We often describe international education professionals as being able to work effectively across boundaries (cultural, institutional, community). This involves cultivating networks and sources of information that enhance the quality of the work you might be doing on behalf of students.

It is also important to recognise there are professional boundaries that should be respected. In an educational setting. This means that 

“…you are in a position of trust, care, authority and influence in relation to their students, which means there is always an inherent power imbalance between you, and students… Professional boundaries are breached when a teacher [or professional staff] misuses their power in such a way that a student’s safety or welfare is compromised.” 

This is often a more difficult challenge than it seems, as international education professionals are often directly responsible for student care and are frequently called upon to act in loco parentis.

B. Client service standards

Take a moment to locate documents relating to professional standards that your institution has available to you and your colleagues, such as: 

i) A customer service charter or mission/ vision statement that obliges you to

    • Be responsive and professional in the delivery of services
    • Be reliable and consistent in applying rules and procedures and communicating with our customers
    • Provide accurate information
    • Be fair, impartial, responsible and trustworthy
    • Admit it when we get it wrong and resolve to get it right
    • Honour our commitments
    • Build effective, positive, and productive relationships with our clients based on mutual respect and understanding.

 

ii) Professional behaviour and ethical decision-making guidelines, such as this advice

    • Act in good faith and with fairness, consideration and objectivity
    • Recognise their own cultural and value orientations and be aware of how those orientations affect their interactions with people from other cultures and language backgrounds
    • Be aware of, and show appropriate sensitivity to, and respect for, other cultures and value systems
    • Do not discriminate or tolerate discrimination on the part of others, on the basis of ethnic or national origins, gender, sexual orientation, religion, disability or age.

 

C. Benchmarks

What are professional benchmarks? 

These are measures that provide leaders with tangible performance standards. Benchmarks can help you define and meet your aspirations and targets across all your international education activities.

McKinnon, Walker and Davis (2000) identified two types of benchmarks in education: criterion reference and quantitative.

  • The criterion reference approach simply defines the attributes of good practice in a functional area.
  • Quantitative benchmarks distinguish normative and competitive levels of achievement. These distinguish where practice is quantifiably different in some institutions. Often the differences will signal good practice; sometimes the differences, such as the proportion of postgraduate students within a university’s total enrolment.

 

i) For professionals

Setting benchmarks for staff performance goals can support professional practice because: 

“Benchmarking will help to overcome resistance to change, provide a structure for external evaluation, and create new networks of communication between schools where valuable information and experiences on teaching and research can be shared.”

How important do you think professional staff are in supporting the strategic goals and benchmarks of your institution? 

According to McKinnon and his team they are a key resource.

“In meeting the goal of excellence to which all universities aspire, the development of their key resource, their staff, is a major issue. Provisions made for the support for new staff, staff appraisal, feedback, encouragement, and opportunities for all staff to improve, is an especially relevant benchmarking issue.”

ii) For students

ISANA (Australia), supported by the Australian government, undertook a benchmarking study to support institutions to enhance international student experiences outside the classroom. The key finding from this study was that: 

“The level of support for international students, described by the institutions and organisations we consulted, far exceeds the minimum legal requirements across all of the
service areas covered.”

English Australia is the national peak body for the English language sector of international education in Australia. They have published a number of Best Practice Guides, whose content and case studies set exemplary standards to the sector. The Guides include A Guide to Best Practice in International Student Safety (2019) and the Guide to Best Practice in International Student Mental Health (2018). These documents provide support through evidence-based research for professionals. 

iii) For community engagement strategies

The case study below demonstrates how community engagement is a key activity that can enhance the skills and knowledge of professionals as well as protect the welfare of students.

A secondary school with a large number of international students enrolled at senior levels has celebrated a milestone anniversary with a gala dinner. All senior students and several members of the community have attended, including from the local hospital, where the school engages regularly with health and welfare specialists; running work experience programmes, student health and welfare assessments and critical incident management skills development for the teaching staff. 

At the end of the evening, two students are involved in a car accident. They are found in a critical condition by the school staff and are taken by ambulance to the hospital. Due to the relationship formed between the school and the hospital community, the immediate care and support available to the students is enhanced through communication channels, and the ability for the school to have swift action taken to inform the students’ parents. A review after the students recover reveals that the school’s benchmarks for community engagement have been exceeded.

The case study: 

  • Illustrates why effective development for staff who oversee complex situations is essential
  • Introduces the complexities of professional work safety, especially after hours
  • Shows how community engagement strategies apply in critical incidents
  • Meets defined benchmarks, such as 
    • Evidence that facilities are shared with the local community 
    • Formal mechanisms to measure service through a review
    • Professional practice meets community standards in the area of student welfare, through health promotion and safety policy.

Are you able to describe a situation where your institution’s benchmarks were tested?

 

SECTION 3

How can you improve your own professional practice?

This section shows you, as a professional practitioner, how to access relevant sources of information and professional networks. 

The section covers: 

  • Your institution’s obligations to foster professional practice, including the Code and its Guidelines for tertiary and school providers 
  • The networks of international education professional practice 
  • Information sources for career progression and opportunities
  • Continuous professional development
  • Observing and modelling good practice.

Firstly, refresh your responses to the competency matrix in Section 1. What were the areas you identified for specific attention, for professional development? Focusing on these areas will help you select relevant sources of information.

A. Know what your institution’s obligations are to foster professional practice 

The Code requires that people working with international students have appropriate training and knowledge to fulfil their roles

Look at the two examples from the Code below. What implications do these requirements have for your professional role?

  • Clause 10 process 4: Providers must provide staff with ongoing training and resources tailored to their roles in the organisation. This includes professionals with responsibilities for “welfare issues of diverse learner groups.”
  • Clause 25 process 2: Providers must ensure that “accommodation staff are provided with ongoing training and resources that are appropriate for their role as set out in clause 10(2); and the experience and training of accommodation staff is appropriate for the type and nature of accommodation that is being provided…” 

 

B. Build and keep networks

According to Cole (2005, p.105) keeping networks involves: 

  • Keeping contact information up to date so you can find people when you need them or when they need you
  • Staying in touch
  • Helping your allies whenever you can
  • Being a friendly face and lending a helping hand to people who join your organisation, professional association and other networks
  • Looking for the fresh insights they can offer you and that can enrich your programme.

Although this is relevant in any workplace, in international education these tips have added significance. Think of networks that facilitate collaboration and community development, or that provide employment opportunities to your students. 

Seek out networking opportunities to participate in and contribute to conferences and professional development sessions. Sharing your experiences with like-minded others is a valuable way to develop your presentation skills and to develop networks. It is also sound practice in applying the bi-cultural values of manaaki, whanaunga, mahi tahi and kotahitanga. 

C. Focus on career progression

Here, we’re talking about more than ambition or promotion. Career progression means being effective as well as successful. Career progression indicates you have expanded your ability to take on other roles and responsibilities, while making a contribution to your institution.

You can do this by: 

  • Using practical resources and relevant research 
  • Developing specific skills and building knowledge 
  • Building your understanding of international education, at home and globally.

Below is a selection of resources sorted by professional role. Use these as a springboard to find your own resources.

Professional roles Sources of information Guidance notes
Student recruitment and marketing Education New Zealand’s marketing development includes raising the profile of New Zealand in targeted market countries. See: https://www.enz.govt.nz/support/advice/marketing-development/

Roles in international education marketing include communications and branding campaigns such as: Education New Zealand’s “Think New” branding campaign.

Recruiters are obliged to understand the academic programs and student services available in the institutions they are representing, so knowledge of available information is essential.

Developing resources for marketing and agent engagement are exemplified in the Brand Lab and Agent Lab sites.

Professional work in marketing and student recruitment often appeals to people who enjoy flexible roles and opportunities to represent their institution, work with students and education agents, and develop marketing campaigns.
Admissions/enrolments One of the best sources of information on professional roles is found by scanning job advertisements through online searches. Look for current international student admissions/enrolments positions and the specific role and skills required. Admissions officers are often the first contact international students have with their institution before they begin their studies. Admissions and enrolments departments have a high level of responsibility to: provide accurate and customized academic advice and individual consultation to international students.
Teaching & learning Schools

Te Kete Ipurangi 

MOE Professional Learning and Development

Tertiary

Ako Aotearoa

Higher Education Development Centre 

Centre for Academic Development

Centre for Professional and Continuing Education 

Professor Ly Tran is a Deakin University academic who has extensively researched pedagogy and learning related to international students

Although teaching international students does not require specific qualifications, it is important that you acquire cross-cultural skills, understand internationalisation policy and be familiar with diverse student cohorts.
Student support & welfare roles You will find the most current and practical resources in this domain through your professional association. ISANA in New Zealand and Australia are specialists in student support services, carrying extensive resources and conference papers on their websites.

A range of relevant sources of professional development is contained in the reference list.

People who work directly with international students are characteristically dedicated to student welfare, and are skilled at building productive relationships with students, other professionals and stakeholder networks.  They may take responsibilities that span counselling, academic advice, running student and community-based activities, coordinating programs, managing critical incidents and administration.

 

D. Make your professional development continuous

Continuing Professional Development (CPD) ensures you continue to be competent in your profession, by using current information and ideas. It is an ongoing process throughout a professional’s career.

CPD helps you become more effective in the workplace. This assists you to advance in your career and move into new positions where you can lead, manage, influence, coach and mentor others.

You can make your professional development continuous by: 

  • Taking an interest in research that relates to your role 
  • Seeking out practical tools that support your practice
  • Undertaking professional development activities, and
  • Engaging with like-minded, curious people.

 

E. Observe good practice

The term ‘best practice’ is used when there have been benchmarking activities and/or reports published that make comparative claims of quality and modelling. It’s probably more accurate to use ‘good practice’. This is sufficient to convey quality standards are being applied. Some examples of ‘good’ or best’ practice include:

  • The New Zealand Qualifications Authority (2019) published Guidelines for the Education (Pastoral Care of International Students) Code of Practice 2016.This document shows how the Code applies to providers’ (signatories’) practices, specifically directed at international student welfare. 
  • Guidelines for developing a transnational (offshore) education Strategy (Zigauras, 2007). This guide cites a number of institutions that have published their own approaches to transnational education. It includes checklists and guidance for establishing transnational partnerships and preparing teaching staff for transnational activities. 

Central to good practice is embracing Te Tiriti to focus on working with and managing diversity, recognising identity. Respecting values is central to your practice. 

 

SECTION 4

What is the role of leaders in fostering professional practice?  

This section addresses obligations and innovative approaches for leaders to support professional development and in the environments where they work with stakeholders

Tom Whalley, in British Columbia in 1997, linked principles of best practice in internationalisation with the responsibilities that institutional leaders have to support professional development. His guidelines provide professional development objectives. These include:

  • Opportunities to develop skills and knowledge, including opportunities at home and overseas
  • The promotion of awareness activities which foster positive attitudes towards internationalisation 
  • A recognition that internationalisation is ‘holistic’ and involves the integration of international perspectives throughout curriculum, programme and advisory practices.

 

Set goals and embrace vision

If you are a leader of teams, how might you readily apply these objectives to your role? You might start with valuing diversity, and collaboration.

de Silva-Currie & Almeida (2017) say that leaders must consider that innovation thrives where “there is acquired diversity, a genuine appreciation of difference, and an established culture in which all employees feel free to contribute ideas.”. 

In order to foster professional practice, leaders should apply an understanding of diversity, while also having cultural competence, skills and knowledge.

George Beaton argues that: “The best way to demonstrate competence and care is to deliver the highest standards to every client, every day. This is of course…often easier said than done, requiring presence and single-minded focus.”

So, a challenge for leaders in developing their staff is to focus on the aspects of international education that have high value. 

Think about the two quotes above. What is of high value in your workplace that requires a professional development response? Do you think that social issues are worth considering? 

Engage with issues of wider significance 

Innovative leaders have a role that can facilitate change. Within and beyond their campuses, leaders may have opportunities to be involved in initiatives where they can influence discussion, deploy resources and encourage their student cohorts and professional staff to reach their personal and career goals. How might you become such a change agent?

Here are some approaches:

  • Promote causes and engage with issues that are relevant to your institution’s mission and values.
  • Integrate sustainability as a core value in institutional internationalisation
    strategies.
  • Understand and address climate change and environmental protection.
  • Gather current data on student voices; know how students are making study choices, their view of services they consider important and their broader concerns on such issues as sustainability and climate change.

 

Encourage your staff to do these things:

 

Try this final exercise:

You are the leader of an international education programme. Your students and colleagues have provided overwhelmingly positive feedback. You have now been offered additional resources to bring new professional staff on board, empower current staff and expand the programme. Using the material in this topic and your own experience, reflect on this question. How might you utilise professional resources that are now available to you?

 

SUMMARY OF TOPIC

This topic looked at professional practice with a broad perspective. Your role may range across international education sectors and settings beyond institutions, such as in communities in which institutions operate. This means that your skills and knowledge are often challenged and must be adaptable. The topic offered you a range of discussion points, self-reflective activities to support the relationships your professional role has with others. Specifically, the topic provided resources for you to develop your professional self into the future.

 

REFERENCES AND RESOURCES

The resources below are sorted by these themes: 

  • Professionalism 
  • Leadership
  • Professional associations
  • Targeted professional development
  • Benchmarking and good practice guidelines

 

Professionalism

Beaton, G. (2022). Why professionalism matters more than ever. Australian Council of Professions.  Accessed at: https://www.professions.org.au/

Cole, K. (2005). Management: theory and practice. Pearson Education Australia.

Government of Western Australia (2019). Teacher-Student Professional Boundaries: a resource for WA teachers. Revised edition. Accessed at: https://www.trb.wa.gov.au/DesktopModules/mvc/TrbDownload/PublishedDoc.aspx?number=D19/065558

The Journal of International Students is a quarterly peer-reviewed publication on international education. It is a free journal with articles of direct interest to professionals working with international students. The focus is on student experience research.

Kotter, J.P. (2007). Leading change: Why transformation efforts fail. Harvard Business Review. 85(1), pp.96-103. Accessed at: https://hbr.org/1995/05/leading-change-why-transformation-efforts-fail-2

Mestenhauser, J. (2000). Dual Functions of International Education Professionals: in search of their knowledge base. European Association for International Education, Amsterdam, Occasional paper no.12, pp.31-49.

Leadership:

Burrows, L. C. (2000). (ed). Internationalization of higher education: an institutional perspective. UNESCO European Centre for Higher Education See particularly the chapter by Josef Mestenhauser, “Missing in action: leadership for international and global education for the twenty-first Century”, pp.23-62. Josef Mestenhauser (1925-2015) was a champion of professional development and ongoing learning for international educators.

Garcia, H., McNaughtan, J., Li, X., Leong, M. C. & Herridge, A. S. (2021). Empowered to Serve? Higher Education International Center Directors and Their Roles on Campus Internationalization. Journal of International Students. 11(3), pp.666–686. https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v11i3.2039

Knight, J. (2003). Updating the Definition of Internationalization. International Higher Education. 33. 10.6017/ihe.2003.33.7391.

Silva-Currie, P. & Almeida, S. (2017). Diversity powers innovation. Paper presented to the Institute of Public Works Engineering Australasia (IPWEA), Perth.

Courses that have relevance to international education, although not international education specific, can offer you skills development to support your role, in the following areas:

  1. Critical incident management
  2. Customer service
  3. Managing events
  4. Managing budgets
  5. Cross cultural competencies

 

Professional associations:

Professional associations represent people in different fields of work. They offer resources, training, events and conferences to their members. Even if you are not a member, many of these associations offer resources and publications accessible to the public.

The Canadian Bureau for International Education (CBIE) 

CBIE dates back to the 1940s and was founded in the post-war years under the banner: Friendly Relations with Overseas Students (FROS) by a group of students at the University of Toronto. CBIE has a number of Professional Learning Communities (PLCs) that comprise individuals with similar interests in international education, including student services, study abroad, research, recruitment and marketing. CBIE supported the first formal certificate program for international educators in Canada in the 1980s, at the University of British Columbia. 

ISANA: International Education Association 

ISANA was established in 1989. It is a national professional association that represents people working with international students in Australia, with a branch established in 2001 in New Zealand. Members can provide direct input through the association into key government strategies and policies that impact on professional work and the lives of international students. 

ISANA.NZ (New Zealand)

In 2010, the New Zealand branch became an incorporated trust, ISANA International Education Association New Zealand Inc. Better known as ISANA NZ, the trust continues to work in association with ISANA Australia. Its goal is to professionalise international education by working to establish courses such as microcredentials.

International Education Association of Australia (IEAA)

Established in 2004, the IEAA provides advocacy and member services relevant to professional staff and academics across all sectors. It publishes a series of Research Digests that provide professionals with reference material on a range of topics.

The European Association for International Education (EAIE) 

EAIE is a professional association focussed on expertise, networking and resources in the internationalisation of higher education. It is a non-profit, member-led organisation serving individuals actively involved in the internationalisation of their institutions. EAIE has developed an extensive library of resources for its members. Its training programs cover in-house workshops in leadership, partnerships, student experience, recruitment and admissions, as well as learning, teaching and curriculum. Forum is the EAIE member magazine, published three times a year. The magazine is themed, approaching “a single topic from multiple angles and a range of geographies with each issue.”

The Japan Association for Foreign Student Affairs (JAFSA) 

JAFSA is an association which comprises universities, individuals, and other entities including private firms as supporting members interested in facilitating the internationalisation of education in Japan and around the world. It was established in 1968 as a non-profit, non-governmental, voluntary based organisation.

NAFSA: Association of International Educators is the world’s largest nonprofit association dedicated to international education and exchange. NAFSA was founded in 1948 as the National Association of Foreign Student Advisers to promote the professional development of U.S. college and university officials responsible for assisting and advising the 25,000 foreign students who had come to study in the United States after World War II. The International Educator has been the regular monthly flagship publication of NAFSA since 1990. Although based in the US, its articles have relevance to international education professionals globally.

The UK Council for International Student Affairs (UKCISA) 

UKCISA was formed as The UK Council for Overseas Student Affairs (UKCOSA) in 1965. It is the UK’s national advisory body serving the interests of international students and those who work with them. The UKCISA Code of Ethics is intended for all those advising international students, whether or not they have the word adviser in their job title. UKCISA published an international student-led Charter in June 2022.

 

Targeted professional development for international education professionals:

Arkoudis, S. (nd). Teaching international students: strategies to enhance learning. Centre for the Study of Higher Education. The University of Melbourne. Assessed at: http://www.cshe.unimelb.edu.au/ This resource offers practical teaching tips specifically for international learners. For an extensive range of academic papers by Professor Arkoudis, visit: https://melbourne-cshe.unimelb.edu.au/about/our-staff/sophie-arkoudis.

Learning Virtual Exchange is a course delivered by the EAIE providing the tools to deploy virtual exchange at institutions. It is a valuable product for practitioners managing online/virtual programmes.

A number of resources are accessible from the ISANA NZ home page. These include research into international education as a ‘cross-disciplinary enterprise’, events, and professional support.

Tran, L.T., & Pasura, R. (2018). Professional Development for Teachers Working with International Students. Vocations and Learning. 11, pp.345–364. Accessed at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12186-017-9195-6  This article describes the need to expand teachers’ professional development in response to the growing population of international students.

Blog posts that are relevant to service professionals such as those from Penny Gamble and her colleagues provide accessible and practical content such as tips on ethical practice.

 

Benchmarking and good practice guidelines:

Education New Zealand. (2018). International Education Strategy 2018 – 2030. Accessible at: https://www.enz.govt.nz/assets/Uploads/International-Education-Strategy-2018-2030.pdf

Note the content on Global Citizenship (and implications for professionals working with international students), and Goal 3: “Promote international education as an academic discipline to encourage tertiary scholarship, research and professional development pathways within the sector.“

English Australia. (2018). Guide to Best Practice in International Student Mental Health. Accessed at: https://www.englishaustralia.com.au/professional-development/best-practice-guides

English Australia. (2019). A Guide to Best Practice in International Student Safety. Accessed at: https://www.englishaustralia.com.au/professional-development/best-practice-guides

Gunasekaran, A. (2002). Benchmarking in education. Benchmarking: An International Journal. 9(1). Accessed at: https://doi.org/10.1108/bij.2002.13109aaa.001

McKinnon, K., Walker, S. & Davis, D. (2000). Benchmarking: A manual for Australian Universities. Commonwealth of Australia. Although published over 20 years ago, this benchmarking manual provides an excellent theoretical analysis and practical applications of benchmarks that relate to university practice. The authors include a self-assessment tool with each benchmark. 

Accessed at: https://vital.voced.edu.au/vital/access/services/Download/ngv:8128/SOURCE2

The New Zealand Qualifications Authority. (2019). Guidelines for the Education (Pastoral Care of
International Students) Code of Practice 2016. Accessed at: https://www.nzqa.govt.nz/assets/Providers-and-partners/Code-of-Practice/guidelines-code-of-practice-2019.pdf

The New Zealand Qualifications Authority. (nd). Our Customer Charter. Assessed at: https://www.nzqa.govt.nz/about-us/our-role/our-client-charter/

Whalley, T. (1997). Best Practice Guidelines for Internationalisation of the Curriculum. Ministry of Education, Skills and Training & the Centre for Curriculum Transfer and Technology. Province of British Columbia.

Ziguras, C. (2007). Good Practice in Transnational Education: A Guide for New Zealand Providers. Education New Zealand Trust.

Ziguras, C., Harwood, A. & ISANA: International Education Association. (2011). Principles of good practice for enhancing international student experience outside the classroom.  ISANA: International Education Association. 

 

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